Ferrari Power Unit Hardware & Software

All that has to do with the power train, gearbox, clutch, fuels and lubricants, etc. Generally the mechanical side of Formula One.
trinidefender
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Re: Ferrari Power Unit

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PlatinumZealot wrote:By cast-in i mean when they have a very thin lining material with a rough surface on the back-side bonded under high pressure into the lighter material which makes up the block is cast around it. I read that BMW and Toyota use this technique to make some of the lightest cylinder blocks on the market.
I am not sure how the sprayed on liners compare though.
Are you referring to something like this?
Image

"The stock FA20 has thin iron liners that act as a friction surface (similar to a bearing) to keep the piston rings from wearing directly on the aluminum cylinder walls."

Brian Coat
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Re: Ferrari Power Unit

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Liners are heavier than coated parent metal bores and take more package space.

That's why the atmo era engines used coated parent metal bores.

I doubt the combustion pressure increase in these engines (cf. atmo) justifies the need for a ferrous liner - the Indy engines use parent bores, don't they? With the exception of Judd, who stated they used liners to shorten development time IIRC?

You can also see from the posted picture of a road (Subaru?) engine that the (ridiculously huge, in this case) coolant jacket is not enclosed by the top deck. This open deck design is not a prerequisite for cast in liners but it allows a simpler die casting arrangement. It is not generally the optimum for structural efficiency i.e. strength/weight/package balance.

This picture and discussion also illustrate why an all-machined-from-solid F1 block concept brings its own (not insurmountable) challenges.
Last edited by Brian Coat on Sun Dec 13, 2015 2:21 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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godlameroso
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Re: Ferrari Power Unit

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Image
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Brian Coat
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That's a BMW S55 closed deck block which uses arc spray coated bores, isn't it.

Except for the fact it is die cast, this is much closer to the bore/deck concept we've seen on recent F1 engines than the prior photo.

A couple of asides

1) BMW parent bore 2.0

BMW's return to the road-car parent metal arena after they got their fingers seriously burned in the 1990s using Nikasil bores on their V8.

The high sulfur level in road fuels in certain markets caused corrosion of their Nikasil plating and they had to change back to liners and do a big recall. (As did Jaguar who had followed/copied them. BMW had copied Porsche IIRC, who already had it on the 911).

2) Rear package of this block

Rear of Cyl. 6 to rear of block looks very tidy, doesn't it. Clever wedge shaped rear oil drain and very tightly packaged rear coolant transfer passages.

trinidefender
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Re: Ferrari Power Unit

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Brian Coat wrote:That's a BMW S55 closed deck block which uses arc spray coated bores, isn't it.

Except for the fact it is die cast, this is much closer to the bore/deck concept we've seen on recent F1 engines than the prior photo.

A couple of asides

1) BMW parent bore 2.0

BMW's return to the road-car parent metal arena after they got their fingers seriously burned in the 1990s using Nikasil bores on their V8.

The high sulfur level in road fuels in certain markets caused corrosion of their Nikasil plating and they had to change back to liners and do a big recall. (As did Jaguar who had followed/copied them. BMW had copied Porsche IIRC, who already had it on the 911).

2) Rear package of this block

Rear of Cyl. 6 to rear of block looks very tidy, doesn't it. Clever wedge shaped rear oil drain and very tightly packaged rear coolant transfer passages.
I didn't post it for the deck structure (which I find annoying as it is an engine I want to get that car and turn it into a project, an open deck design really not being ideal for high boost pressures). I posted it simply to show the liners.

I was under the impression that nikasil was/is popular as a liner. What else is used these days both in road cars and race cars?
Last edited by trinidefender on Tue Dec 15, 2015 4:51 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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PlatinumZealot
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I don't remember what technology BMW uses for the liner in the turbo engines...
I know toyota uses the cast in style on it current turbo engines.
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Brian Coat
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Re: Ferrari Power Unit

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What's popular these days is

(1) Good 'ole cast iron in its various forms
(2) Spray coated parent metal - see Merc thread

Nikasil is not popular for the reasons I mentioned above.

Coinage
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Re: Ferrari Power Unit

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PlatinumZealot wrote:I don't remember what technology BMW uses for the liner in the turbo engines...
I know toyota uses the cast in style on it current turbo engines.
The BMW S55 uses LDS (Lichtbogendrahtspritzen) coated cylinder walls.

More info about it here:
http://www.motoringfile.com/2011/04/27/ ... iled-look/
LDS has already been used for a handful of years by other manufacturers (namely Mercedes Benz’s AMG division) with great success. LDS is also known as a twin wire arc spray process. A twin wire arc spray gun is composed of two consumable electrodes (two iron wires in BMWs case) brought toward a converging point wherein an electric arc is generated. This arc then melts the continuously advancing iron wires. An atomizing gas (inert) flowing through the arc produces a molten droplet spray jet that is directed toward the surface of the part to be coated, in this case the aluminum cylinder wall. It is basically a plasma cutter/welder that has the molten metal blown with the droplets creating a coating. What LDS permits is a thinner/lighter cylinder wall, for the N20 that is initially .4 mm which is honed down to .2mm; minuscule when compared to the typical iron sleeve. The decreased thickness allows for greater thermal transfer and consistency all while allowing extra cooling channels (part of the water jacket) between cylinder bores so the engine can been tuned “hotter” since the cooling properties are greater.

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Chuckjr
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Re: Ferrari Power Unit

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Encouraging article if true.

Source:
http://www.motorsport.com/f1/news/techn ... es-668712/

Technical analysis: Combustion secret to Ferrari 2016 hopes

Ferrari is bullish it can start the 2016 Formula 1 season on the top step of the podium. Franco Nugnes looks at the Italian squad's plans to make the step to beat Mercedes in Australia.

Formula 1 teams well know the PR dangers that come from over-promising and under-delivering, which makes Ferrari’s recent bold statements of intent about a winning start in Melbourne intriguing.

President Sergio Marchionne is adamant that from the first race, Ferrari must be a Mercedes-beater. But is this all just wishful thinking, or does he know something that those outside the team are unaware of?

Here, we look at the design avenues that Ferrari have been looking at in a bid to overhaul the Silver Arrows, especially when it comes to closing down the horsepower deficit the Prancing Horse has faced.

Engine focus

Perhaps Marchionne's optimism of an attacking start is based on the reality of encouraging data that is coming out of Maranello, both in terms of aerodynamics and, more significantly, on the engine front.

And could it be in the latter area – with it widely accepted that much of Mercedes' dominance has been based on its brilliant power unit execution – where Ferrari has made some significant gains.

300 bar pressure

According to Motorsport.com sources, Ferrari's focus in engine development this winter – helped by an easing of development restrictions – has been on the combustion chamber of the new 059/5 V6 engine.

It is suggested that chief designer Lorenzo Sassi has pushed for an innovative direction, both in terms of packaging but also in terms of performance.

One target that has been set has been to reach a 300 bar pressure in the combustion chamber, much higher than last year's figures that were understood to be around 220-240 bar.

Operating like a diesel

Ferrari's aim is to reduce the ignition time, and make the engine operate in a similar way to a diesel with auto-combustion.

If you can get the fuel to burn before the ignition spark, through high pressure within the chamber, then that will deliver a substantial increase in power. It's easy to say but very complicated to carry out.

Variable intake trumpets


Variable trumpets assembly

Photo by: Giorgio Piola

Achieving that target can be improved by bringing fresh air inside the combustion chamber, and Ferrari has decided to optimise this area with variable geometry.

Although variable intake trumpets (PICTURED) were banned in 2014, they were allowed from last year, although Ferrari did not pursue that route initially.

Last year, Ferrari has its compressor and intercooler between the cylinder banks (SEE MAIN IMAGE) – but these are now set to be moved to make way for the variable intake trumpets. There will also be bigger air and water intercoolers than last year.

Temperature issues

Higher pressure inside the combustion chamber to create auto combustion will obviously result in higher operating temperatures – perhaps up to 1100 degrees Centigrade.

This is why cooling has become a big focus too – especially with there being a limit of five engines for the 21 grands prix scheduled to take place this year.

Closer partnerships

Well aware of how Mercedes has made good gains through its close relationship with Petronas, so too Ferrari is working in unison with its fuel supplier Shell, to deliver a product that fits in with the characteristics it wants.

With Magneti Marelli too, there has been revisions to the injectors to ramp up the pressure to 500 bar – and a new carbon fuel pump.

Ferrari is also eager to ensure that performance gains do not compromise reliability, with engine chief Mattia Binotto having utilised facilities at AVL Graz under the supervision of Wolf Zimmermann, a specialist who brought with him knowledge from Mercedes when he joined in 2014.

Work ongoing

It is clear Ferrari is leaving no stone unturned in its bid to deliver on the high targets being set by Marchionne. With still more than one month to go before the first test, its efforts are not easing off, but the proof of its work will only come when cars hit the track for the first time.

All eyes then will be on Barcelona.
Watching F1 since 1986.

gruntguru
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Re: Ferrari Power Unit

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300 bar peak-cylinder-pressure is certainly pushing the boundary. I have never heard of such a high pressure in an SI engine. Even diesels don't normally go that high.
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wuzak
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Re: Ferrari Power Unit

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gruntguru wrote:300 bar peak-cylinder-pressure is certainly pushing the boundary. I have never heard of such a high pressure in an SI engine. Even diesels don't normally go that high.
How does that relate to BMEP?

I'm guessing it isn't a linear relationship. They are aiming for a 25% increase in cylinder pressure, which would mean 25% increase in power if the BMEP increased the same amount!

hemichromis
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Re: Ferrari Power Unit

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I have heard of this technology before. It was expected to improve fuel consumption by 'up to 50%' in road cars.
I'd be surprised if Ferrari took the risk of a very new way of doing it - and the potential reliability problems - when they are so close to Mercedes in terms of power

Joseki
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Re: Ferrari Power Unit

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http://www.f1analisitecnica.com/2016/01 ... ola-d.html

This was the article that started the rumor, but it was about Mercedes, then Omnicorse copied it talking about Ferrari ( :roll: ) and then everyone came after Omnicorse.

Tommy Cookers
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Re: Ferrari Power Unit

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wuzak wrote:
gruntguru wrote:300 bar peak-cylinder-pressure is certainly pushing the boundary. I have never heard of such a high pressure in an SI engine. Even diesels don't normally go that high.
How does that relate to BMEP?
I'm guessing it isn't a linear relationship. They are aiming for a 25% increase in cylinder pressure, which would mean 25% increase in power if the BMEP increased the same amount!
if 300 bar sounds implausible to gg it sounds implausible to me - are we sure the 300 bar isn't the injection pressure used ?

agreed, a 25% increase in peak cylinder pressure (with fuel rate fixed) doesn't necessarily mean 25% more bmep
it implies better thermal efficiency (conversion of combustion gas internal energy to mechanical energy)
2.5% better will win the races

this situation sounds like my question of 3 years ago ....
if the injection rate is managed well enough (ie in the microsecond range) can combustion rate be ideally managed ?

real engines might loosely be regarded as adding some heat at constant volume
the ideal (Dr Diesel's goal that could never be reached) was to add all the heat at constant volume
in usual (higher speed) 'diesels' combustion delay naturally (and conveniently for designers) prevents realisation of the ideal
SI (with current F1 super-DI and ignition rules) might appear to offer the possibility of approaching it
detonation is just a word for an excessive rate of heat addition (arising from limitations of heat rate management)

regarding pistons, I say, (yet again) Gilles Simon suggested in-cylinder conditions needing steel or diesel-style part-steel pistons

hemichromis
hemichromis
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Re: Ferrari Power Unit

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In the article injector pressure is stated as 500 bar!