In F1 the electrical power is supplied by a permanent magnet alternator much like is done on modern motorcycle. Unlike a modern conventional alternator, it is not dependant on the battery to supply power. Since it uses permenent magnets the output voltage also can't be controlled by the field strength of the rotor, so it is connected to an electronic voltage regulator.
I would suspect F1 engines use capacitive discharge ignition systems. The spark plugs are of the surface gap type.
Some specifications can be found on:http://www.mclarenelectronics.com/
TAG310B is the basis of SECU
You can also check out their application notes about ignition systemshttp://www.mclarenelectronics.com/mes_p ... ct_Ign.pdf
Of course, anyone who knows something about ignition systems would never claim that current systems "is the same as the 1908 Alldays and Onions system". The transistors and capacitors required to make the current systems became availible around the 1980'ties.