ARTICLE 5 : ENGINES AND KINETIC ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEMS
5.1 Engine specification :
5.1.1 Only 4-stroke engines with reciprocating pistons are permitted.
5.1.2 Engine capacity must not exceed 2400cc.
5.1.3 Crankshaft rotational speed must not exceed 18,000rpm.
5.1.4 Supercharging is forbidden.
5.1.5 All engines must have 8 cylinders arranged in a 90º “V” configuration and the normal section of each
cylinder must be circular.
5.1.6 Engines must have two inlet and two exhaust valves per cylinder.
Only reciprocating poppet valves are permitted.
The sealing interface between the moving valve component and the stationary engine component must be
5.2 Other means of propulsion :
5.2.1 The use of any device, other than the 2.4 litre, four stroke engine described in 5.1 above and one KERS, to
power the car, is not permitted.
5.2.2 With the exception of one fully charged KERS, the total amount of recoverable energy stored on the car
must not exceed 300kJ. Any which may be recovered at a rate greater than 2kW must not exceed 20kJ.
5.2.3 The maximum power, in or out, of any KERS must not exceed 60kW.
Energy released from the KERS may not exceed 400kJ in any one lap.
Measurements will be taken at the connection to the rear wheel drivetrain.
5.2.4 The amount of stored energy in any KERS may not be increased whilst the car is stationary during a race
Release of power from any such system must remain under the complete control of the driver at all times
the car is on the track.
5.2.5 Cars must be fitted with homologated sensors which provide all necessary signals to the SDR in order to
verify the requirements above are being respected.
5.3 Engine dimensions :
5.3.1 Cylinder bore diameter may not exceed 98mm.
5.3.2 Cylinder spacing must be fixed at 106.5mm (+/- 0.2mm).
5.3.3 The crankshaft centre line must not be less than 58mm above the reference plane.
5.4 Weight and centre of gravity :
5.4.1 The overall weight of the engine must be a minimum of 95kg.
5.4.2 The centre of gravity of the engine may not lie less than 165mm above the reference plane.
5.4.3 The longitudinal and lateral position of the centre of gravity of the engine must fall within a region that is the
geometric centre of the engine, +/- 50mm. The geometric centre of the engine in a lateral sense will be
considered to lie on the centre of the crankshaft and at the mid point between the centres of the forward
and rear most cylinder bores longitudinally.
5.4.4 When establishing conformity with Articles 5.4.1, 5.4.2, 5.4.3 and Appendix 4 of the F1 Sporting
Regulations, the homologated engine will include the intake system up to and including the air filter, fuel
rail and injectors, ignition coils, engine mounted sensors and wiring, alternator, coolant pumps and oil
5.4.5 When establishing conformity with Article 5.4, the engine will not include :
- clutch and clutch actuation system ;
- flywheel ;
- electronic control units or any associated devices containing programmable semiconductors ;
- the alternator regulator ;
- liquids ;
- exhaust manifolds ;
- heat shields ;
- oil tanks, catch tanks or any breather system connected to them ;
- studs used to mount the engine to the chassis or gearbox ;
- water system accumulators ;
- heat exchangers ;
- hydraulic system (e.g. pumps, accumulators, manifolds, servo-valves, solenoids, actuators) except
servo-valve and actuator for engine throttle control ;
- fuel pumps nor any component not mounted on the engine when fitted to the car.
- any ancillary equipment associated with the engine valve air system, such as hoses, regulators,
reservoirs or compressors.
Furthermore, any parts which are not ordinarily part of an engine will not be included when assessing its
weight. Examples of this could be, but are not limited to :
- Wiring harnesses having only a partial association with engine actuators or sensors ;
- A bell housing designed to be integral with the engine crankcase ;
- Top engine mountings designed higher than necessary with integral webs or struts. The centre of
any engine mounting which is part of a cam cover should not be any more than 100mm above a
line between the camshaft centres, when measured parallel to it. Any webs integral with the cam
cover should not extend further back than the centre of the second cylinder bore ;
- Ballast. This is permitted on the engine (subject to the requirements of Article 4.2) but any in excess
of 2kg will be removed from the engine before measuring engine weight or centre of gravity height.
5.5 Engine throttles :
5.5.1 The only means by which the driver may control the engine throttle positions is via a single chassis
mounted foot pedal.
5.5.2 Designs which allow specific points along the pedal travel range to be identified by the driver or assist him
to hold a position are not permitted.
5.5.3 The minimum and maximum throttle pedal travel positions must correspond to the engine throttle minimum
(nominal idle) and maximum open positions.
5.6 Exhaust systems :
Engine exhaust systems may incorporate no more than two exits.
5.7 Variable geometry systems :
5.7.1 Variable geometry inlet systems are not permitted.
5.7.2 Variable geometry exhaust systems are not permitted.
5.7.3 Variable valve timing and variable valve lift systems are not permitted.
5.8 Fuel systems :
5.8.1 The pressure of the fuel supplied to the injectors may not exceed 100 bar. Sensors must be fitted which
directly measure the pressure of the fuel supplied to the injectors, these signals must be supplied to the
FIA data logger.
5.8.2 Only one fuel injector per cylinder is permitted which must inject directly into the side or the top of the inlet
5.9 Electrical systems :
5.9.1 Ignition is only permitted by means of a single ignition coil and single spark plug per cylinder. The use of
plasma, laser or other high frequency ignition techniques is forbidden.
5.9.2 Only conventional spark plugs that function by high tension electrical discharge across an exposed gap are
Spark plugs are not subject to the materials restrictions described in Articles 5.14 and 5.15.
5.9.3 Other than for the specific purpose of powering KERS components, the primary regulated voltage on the
car must not exceed 17.0V DC. This voltage is defined as the stabilised output from the on-car charging
With the exception of any KERS or capacitor circuitry or coils being used solely to provide ignition, any
device with a current requirement greater than 50mA or a power requirement greater than 1W may only be
supplied at or below the primary regulated voltage.
Only capacitor discharge ignition systems (those which generate a spark by means of closing a switch
which then discharges a capacitor through the primary side of the ignition coil), are permitted to provide a
voltage higher than the primary regulated voltage to an ignition coil.
Other than any parts being used to supply a higher voltage to devices such as those described in the
previous paragraphs, no device may step up or increase the primary regulated voltage.
5.10 Engine actuators :
With the following exceptions hydraulic, pneumatic or electronic actuation is forbidden :
a) Electronic solenoids uniquely for the control of engine fluids ;
b) Components providing controlled pressure air for a pneumatic valve system ;
c) A single actuator to operate the throttle system of the engine ;
d) Any components required as part of a KERS.
5.11 Engine auxiliaries :
With the exception of electrical fuel pumps engine auxiliaries must be mechanically driven directly from the
engine with a fixed speed ratio to the crankshaft.
5.12 Engine intake air :
5.12.1 Other than injection of fuel for the normal purpose of combustion in the engine, any device, system,
procedure, construction or design the purpose or effect of which is any decrease in the temperature of the
engine intake air is forbidden.
5.12.2 Other than engine sump breather gases and fuel for the normal purpose of combustion in the engine, the
spraying of any substance into the engine intake air is forbidden.
1.20 Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS)
A system that is designed to recover kinetic energy from the car during braking, store that energy and
make it available to propel the car.
9.2 Clutch control :
The following applies only to the main drivetrain clutch or clutches, any clutch used exclusively as part of a
KERS is exempt.
9.2.1 If multiple clutch operating devices are used, they must all have the same mechanical travel characteristics
and be mapped identically.
9.4 Clutch disengagement :
All cars must be fitted with a means of disengaging the clutch for a minimum of fifteen minutes in the event
of the car coming to rest with the engine stopped. This system must be in working order throughout the
Event even if the main hydraulic, pneumatic or electrical systems on the car have failed. This system must
also disconnect any KERS system fitted to the car.
9.9 Kinetic Energy Recovery System :
9.9.1 The KERS must connect at any point in the rear wheel drivetrain before the differential.
5.7.2 Variable geometry exhaust systems are not permitted.
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