Formula One glossary
A term which includes natural rubber and the many synthetic materials that possess rubber-like properties.
- Electrical system
The system that generates, stores, and distributes electrical current to crank the engine for starting and to keep it running by providing high voltage to the spark plugs; and to give power to the lights, the heater motor, radio, and other accessories. It is made up of the ignition system, starter motor, battery, alternator, voltage regulator, lights, electrical accessories, and all the wiring, switches, and relays.
- Electronic control unit (ECU)
Complex digital unit that controls the many systems inside an engine so that they work to their maximum at every point around the lap. This helps to keep timing right in order to maintain performance at any time. Engine mappings can change completely from circuit to circuit depending upon the nature of the track.
- Electronic fuel injection (EFI)
A system that injects fuel into the engine and includes an electronic control unit to time and meter the flow. Fuel is delivered in intermittent pulses by the opening and closing of solenoid-controlled injectors. Also called pulsed injection
The degree in which a product will stretch under tension before it breaks. This degree is expressed in a percentage of its original length. For example, a tensile elongation of 10% means the product stretched 10% more than its original length before breaking.
The vertical panel which is attached at both sides of a front wing. Its purpose is to overcome the problem of turbulence created between the front wheels and the front wings. Although the shapes may differ, endplates have been used to redirect air away from the tires, and also as pressure equalizers.
A device for changing fuel energy to mechanical energy. The term applies to the primary source of power generation. An engine physically converts potential energy contained in some kind of fuel to kinetic energy, a rotating movement of the wheels.
- Engine knock
When the engine is operating, an audible noise may be heard when the fuel in the cylinders is ignited too early and/or spontaneously, resulting in colliding flame fronts and shock waves which cause high thermal and mechanical stress, and can severely damage the engine.
- Engine map
As an engine speeds up, the timing needs to be advanced. On older vehicles, this is accomplished mechanically with a counterweight advance in the distributor. In modern vehicles, the timing can be advanced progressively by means of a computer chip which is programmed to provide the ideal timing. It also provides other factors in some engines such as the opening and closing of valves, etc.