F1 Cylinder Head Design and Pneumatics, a closer look

All that has to do with the power train, gearbox, clutch, fuels and lubricants, etc. Generally the mechanical side of Formula One.
Brian.G
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Re: F1 Cylinder Head Design and Pneumatics, a closer look

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Billzilla wrote:
Brian.G wrote:I will provide all of the above next week, no problem.
That will be most interesting, thanks.
Bill, I hope to get the silicone port model captured via 3d scanning so that will be interesting too.

Brian,
If you think you cant, you wont, If you think you can, you will

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strad
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Brian..I know for a fact the Renault used to have to toss heads after a race, and it was because the stress and vibration would fill them with spider web cracks. It was also a time when MOST of the engine was disposable.. Engines didn't have to last like now.
To achieve anything, you must be prepared to dabble on the boundary of disaster.”
Sir Stirling Moss

Brian.G
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Re: F1 Cylinder Head Design and Pneumatics, a closer look

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strad wrote:Brian..I know for a fact the Renault used to have to toss heads after a race, and it was because the stress and vibration would fill them with spider web cracks. It was also a time when MOST of the engine was disposable.. Engines didn't have to last like now.
Thats fair enough, I was just pointing out that sand casting, or gravity die with sand cores does not create poor parts - you have to take other elements on board too such as metallurgy, fill method, metal handling pre pour and also heat treatment.

I would imagine even the modern heads are made using sand, either as the main moulds, or the cores. The only difference being the way the mould filled, and whats done while its cooling(Centrifugal holding jigs, in mould heat pipes etc)

Further mild info here, http://www.alueurope.eu/wp-content/uplo ... r-head.pdf
http://www.cins.ca/docs/exp_rep/CNBC-2013-MS-8.pdf

A quick word also to say that I have started nailing down the info re ports and sizes so will have sooner that I thought to 'complete' thread fully,

Regards,

Brian,
If you think you cant, you wont, If you think you can, you will

Brian.G
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Re: F1 Cylinder Head Design and Pneumatics, a closer look

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Just to start adding the info before it piles up.

First, the seats

Image

Image

An overview,

Image

Image

Image

The intake port sides are straight for most of the way. The floor is straight until indicated below with the blade in the SSR shot,

Image

Close-ups of the various details - use ruler for sizing - It will give the opportunity to take real dimensions from any location without having to list,

Image

Image

Image

Image

Image

Image

Image

Lots more to add yet including cross-sections, volume, angles and valve sizes but its on the way.

Ive made up my mind also to perform some other flow tests as well as flowbench tests using either particle image velocimetry, or ink trace - In both cases a clear casting is made of the port/chamber and you can then view the flow/turbulence within it.
Ill get the hard measures mentioned above out of the way first. These should give good insight - the rest Ill share in 3d form once I get the silicone scanned.

More very soon,

Brian,
If you think you cant, you wont, If you think you can, you will

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strad
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Sweeeeeeeeeeet
Thank You
To achieve anything, you must be prepared to dabble on the boundary of disaster.”
Sir Stirling Moss

Billzilla
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Very nice thanks Brian.
Could you please do the honours at PF again?
(Don't take any --- from the village idiot Momus)

xpensive
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Brian.G wrote:
xpensive wrote:
Its hard to tell on the gear cover, it looks like a billet machine item, but the cam cover is defiantly sand cast yes.
...
If you're planning to make a more than a few, how about shell-casting those cam-covers?
You could do, but If I was doing a cover such as this I'd probably cnc machine from billet since its a 'fairly' simple part with not much internal ways bar the tapered coolant tube. I see a fair few of the newer F1 covers are machined this way, and not cast. A good example below of a billet cover, taken again, in Maranello.

http://i150.photobucket.com/albums/s92/ ... 682e3c.jpg

Brian,[/quote]
I guess, if you're insensitive to cost, I cannot imagine what those Ferrari covers would cost to machine, holy cow.
"I spent most of my money on wine and women...I wasted the rest"

Brian.G
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Brian,
I guess, if you're insensitive to cost, I cannot imagine what those Ferrari covers would cost to machine, holy cow.
Ill guesstimate say 200euro for the billet, and about 15hrs machine time pending spindle speed, not counting stress relief after roughing,

Sketches done for the rest of major sizes on ports. Was going to draw up in solidworks, but its a little pointless given that Im scanning the silicone model - hopefully the weekend. I dont mind doing 3d sketches because thats where I started pre cad so Ill stick them up tomorrow.
Have begun to layout the basics for the particle image velocimetry/ink tests so Id plan to have the entire thread complete in less than two weeks.
That should tie it off nicely, and hopefully some of the info will be useful to someone along the line - its worth sharing anyway I feel since Im doing it all anyway,


Brian,

https://www.google.com/search?q=particl ... 7Aa64IGYAg
If you think you cant, you wont, If you think you can, you will

riff_raff
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Re: F1 Cylinder Head Design and Pneumatics, a closer look

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Brian.G wrote:Thats fair enough, I was just pointing out that sand casting, or gravity die with sand cores does not create poor parts - you have to take other elements on board too such as metallurgy, fill method, metal handling pre pour and also heat treatment....I would imagine even the modern heads are made using sand, either as the main moulds, or the cores. The only difference being the way the mould filled, and whats done while its cooling(Centrifugal holding jigs, in mould heat pipes etc)....Brian,
Most water-cooled aluminum heads are still sand cast. But modern sand casting techniques are capable of producing much higher quality castings than was possible just 10 or 15 years ago. The biggest changes are the availability of accurate digital analysis tools for evaluating the solidification of castings and the flow characteristics of liquid metal in the molds.

Another major improvement is the use of digital inspection equipment (CMM's) to ensure accurate positioning of mold pieces such as cores. This allows tighter control of features like cast wall thickness, which in turn results in more consistent fatigue life of castings.

Looking at the photos of the cylinder head sections posted, the one thing that immediately caught my eye was the fairly heavy thickness of the deck wall, and how there was no apparent effort made to create a gradual transition to the thin wall section of the lower ports.
"Q: How do you make a small fortune in racing?
A: Start with a large one!"

Brian.G
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riff_raff wrote:
Brian.G wrote:Thats fair enough, I was just pointing out that sand casting, or gravity die with sand cores does not create poor parts - you have to take other elements on board too such as metallurgy, fill method, metal handling pre pour and also heat treatment....I would imagine even the modern heads are made using sand, either as the main moulds, or the cores. The only difference being the way the mould filled, and whats done while its cooling(Centrifugal holding jigs, in mould heat pipes etc)....Brian,
Most water-cooled aluminum heads are still sand cast. But modern sand casting techniques are capable of producing much higher quality castings than was possible just 10 or 15 years ago. The biggest changes are the availability of accurate digital analysis tools for evaluating the solidification of castings and the flow characteristics of liquid metal in the molds.

Another major improvement is the use of digital inspection equipment (CMM's) to ensure accurate positioning of mold pieces such as cores. This allows tighter control of features like cast wall thickness, which in turn results in more consistent fatigue life of castings.

Looking at the photos of the cylinder head sections posted, the one thing that immediately caught my eye was the fairly heavy thickness of the deck wall, and how there was no apparent effort made to create a gradual transition to the thin wall section of the lower ports.
Yes - totally agree, an example of the casting below in link for those who have not seen it,

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z8MaVaqNr3U

Theres another place in Italy with an excellent website/service that carries out same but I cant for the life of me think of the name at the minute.

The deck thickness is surprising for sure, and pretty mega indeed from all other decks Ive seen,

Brian,
If you think you cant, you wont, If you think you can, you will

riff_raff
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Re: F1 Cylinder Head Design and Pneumatics, a closer look

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Brian.G-

I've talked with the guys at ProMetal about making some pre-production EV31A magnesium gearbox sand castings. The process used to produce the molds is pretty neat, but otherwise it's basically sand casting. It's much faster and costs less than making patterns for small quantities, but it is definitely not "cheap".

When it comes to getting the best fatigue properties from a sand casting, it's all about paying attention to tiny details in the design of the casting and the tooling. I pointed out the obvious example of the abrupt transition in section thickness at the deck/port wall junction. Areas like this are susceptible to hot tears, sponge porosity, etc. that have a significantly adverse effect on fatigue properties. The problem can be partially addressed with careful use of chills, gating, etc, but the best approach is to change the casting design itself to eliminate/minimize these conditions. I looked closely at the photos for any indications of porosity or shrinkage related flaws, but it was difficult to determine if there were any due to the surface smearing created when the casting was cut apart.

Regardless, thanks for the photos. They were very interesting.
"Q: How do you make a small fortune in racing?
A: Start with a large one!"

Brian.G
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Re: F1 Cylinder Head Design and Pneumatics, a closer look

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riff_raff wrote:Brian.G-

I've talked with the guys at ProMetal about making some pre-production EV31A magnesium gearbox sand castings. The process used to produce the molds is pretty neat, but otherwise it's basically sand casting. It's much faster and costs less than making patterns for small quantities, but it is definitely not "cheap".

When it comes to getting the best fatigue properties from a sand casting, it's all about paying attention to tiny details in the design of the casting and the tooling. I pointed out the obvious example of the abrupt transition in section thickness at the deck/port wall junction. Areas like this are susceptible to hot tears, sponge porosity, etc. that have a significantly adverse effect on fatigue properties. The problem can be partially addressed with careful use of chills, gating, etc, but the best approach is to change the casting design itself to eliminate/minimize these conditions. I looked closely at the photos for any indications of porosity or shrinkage related flaws, but it was difficult to determine if there were any due to the surface smearing created when the casting was cut apart.

Regardless, thanks for the photos. They were very interesting.
Riff raff - totally agree with all the above, the gating and riser locations also major players. I must flat mill a section, and polish it to see if there is any porosity but Im not seeing any as is. Valve stem bosses/locations are also other areas where tear can happen since they are a large mass compared to the surrounding port walls/etc but are easy enough areas to chill having said that.

Brian,
If you think you cant, you wont, If you think you can, you will

emc2
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Re: F1 Cylinder Head Design and Pneumatics, a closer look

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Brian you are the men, greatly appreciated info. =D> =D> =D>

Brian.G
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emc2 wrote:Brian you are the men, greatly appreciated info. =D> =D> =D>
You are welcome.

Here is more information on mould making and filter/runner placement should anyone be interested in the casting side of things. It is a very good link, so save it if you want to read later. It is about permanent moulds, but the turbulence issues are present in all moulds.

http://www.metalcasting.govtools.us/rep ... stings.pdf

More info on Cylinder Head in the morning,

Brian,
If you think you cant, you wont, If you think you can, you will

PVDL
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Re: F1 Cylinder Head Design and Pneumatics, a closer look

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Brian, WOW! Thanks for this thread. I got more out of this than reading a years worth of RET magazine!!

Couple of questions...

Regarding the water cores, which sand technique is used to make them?

Are they baked before or after joining the segments to each other and what type of glue/cement is used in the process?


Also the nut seats for the head studs are quite a trick to machine. I can guess how they did it, but I wonder what level of precision they accomplished. Maybe it doesn't matter if they used spherical washers under the nuts?

Anyway, fascinating stuff and many thanks to you!!


Cheers, Paul