Specifications of 50 famous racing engines up to 1994

All that has to do with the power train, gearbox, clutch, fuels and lubricants, etc. Generally the mechanical side of Formula One.
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Re: Ferrari Power Unit Hardware & Software

Post by saviour stivala » Sun Apr 07, 2019 6:17 pm

‘In the first months of 1952 Daimler-Benz set up a special group in its racing-car design department to create the engine that the company would use in its Grand Prix car for the 1954 2.5-litre formula 1. Under the 50-year-old Hans Gassmann, an ingenious and inquisitive engineer. After good results were obtained in 1952 with direct-injection tests in the 300SL coupe engine it was certain that the M196 2.5-litre straight eight Grand Prix engine would be designed from scratch to be direct-injected’.
Sorry MR Moderator, but just a bit of information, so over-and-out on the double because this is a FERRARI engine hardware and software thread after all.

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Re: Specifications of 50 famous racing engines up to 1994

Post by hollus » Sun Apr 07, 2019 8:42 pm

Pics have been added to the BMW M10 in the last page.
It is not white, it is not black, it is probably gray.

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Re: Specifications of 50 famous racing engines up to 1994

Post by gruntguru » Sun Apr 07, 2019 11:39 pm

Thoughts on the Apfelbeck head. At first sight it has a couple of obvious advantages over current pent-roof designs:
1. All valves are inclined towards the cylinder axis - which is the easiest path for flow. (Some "pent-roof" designs also achieve this to some extent)
2. This geometry also achieves a a more "axi-symmetrical" combustion chamber.
3. Paired valves (eg inlets) are separated and therefore do not interfere with (mask) each others flow nor reduce the effective curtain area.
4. Intake flow is directed "down" the cylinder axis rather than across. (High -port pent-roof designs as seen in F1 do approach this)

Less obvious:
5. The intake ports can easily be arranged for in-cylinder swirl with little compromise to flow. (In standard pent-roof designs the two intake valves each tend to create swirl in the opposite direction and therefore cancel.)
je suis charlie

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Re: Specifications of 50 famous racing engines up to 1994

Post by saviour stivala » Mon Apr 08, 2019 5:42 am

gruntguru wrote:
Sun Apr 07, 2019 11:39 pm
Thoughts on the Apfelbeck head. At first sight it has a couple of obvious advantages over current pent-roof designs:
1. All valves are inclined towards the cylinder axis - which is the easiest path for flow. (Some "pent-roof" designs also achieve this to some extent)
2. This geometry also achieves a a more "axi-symmetrical" combustion chamber.
3. Paired valves (eg inlets) are separated and therefore do not interfere with (mask) each others flow nor reduce the effective curtain area.
4. Intake flow is directed "down" the cylinder axis rather than across. (High -port pent-roof designs as seen in F1 do approach this)

Less obvious:
5. The intake ports can easily be arranged for in-cylinder swirl with little compromise to flow. (In standard pent-roof designs the two intake valves each tend to create swirl in the opposite direction and therefore cancel.)

"All valves are inclined 'towards' the cylinder axis". All valves on the Apfelbech radial valves head are (radially) inclined 'outwards/away' from the cylinder axis.

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Re: Specifications of 50 famous racing engines up to 1994

Post by saviour stivala » Mon Apr 08, 2019 7:31 am

“All valves are inclined ‘towards’ the cylinder axis” In my answer to gruntguru I said (all valves are inclined radially ‘away’ from cylinder axis) but I inadvertently left-out “away from cylinder “Z”-axis”. That is my bad and so apologizes. It is not normal ‘PRASSI’ to talk valve inclination as regards cylinder axis. The normal ‘PRASSI’ is to talk valve inclination in regards cylinder centerline.

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Re: Specifications of 50 famous racing engines up to 1994

Post by hollus » Sun Apr 14, 2019 11:16 am

1967 Gurney-Weslake 58 3-litre V12

1967 Gurney-Weslake 58 3-litre V12: Scantly resourced though it was, the AAR GP effort of 1966-68 never looked less then professional. Len Terry’s Lotus-inspired chassis design proved equally suited to both Indy racing and GP road courses. When the Eagle was married with its Weslake-built V12 engine, agreement was widespread that it was one of the handsomest formula 1 car ever constructed.
Known more for its expertise in gas-flow management than for engine manufacture, Harry Weslake’s establishment at Rye UK was not an obvious candidate to build a new GP engine. It did however, have the service of ex BRM designer Frank Aubrey Woods and a promising parallel-twin research engine built under a research contract with Shell. This ran initially in 335cc form and later in 1965 as a 500cc twin – one sixth of a 3-litre V12. The 500cc twin was making 76bhp, which times six is something like 450bhp. Nobody was making that kind of power at that time.
The link between Weslake and Gurney was Woods, who became well acquainted with the American driver when he raced for BRM in 1960. Weslake and his team had carried out some successful work for AAR on special heads for the Ford V8, the Gurney-Weslake heads that won Le Mans in 1968 and 69 in GT40 Fords. Visitors to the AAR pits at Monza during the GP on 4 Sept 1966 were astonished by their first sight of the V12’s small size and apparent simplicity; they were gaining a glimpse of the future, this was the first racing engine to embody top-end design features that would be commonplace a decade later.
Its four valves per cylinder were at a narrow included angle of 30 degrees that allowed a single cover to enclose both closed-spaced camshafts on each bank. The 60 degree V12 was oversquare with cylinders of 72.8*60mm for 2997cc, but the differential between bore and stroke was not so extreme as was then widely propounded. Harry Weslake’s aim, validated by the 500cc test engine results was to maintain good power and torque over a wide speed range with a compact combustion chamber and judiciously-sized ports, not so small as to be restrictive but small enough to keep gas speeds up to maintain an inertial ram effect. Similar dimensions (73.3*59.2mm) had worked well in a 2.0l BRM V8, a later expansion of the P56 V8 with which Aubrey Woods was intimately familiar.
Aluminum alloy crankcase had 7-main bearing with ribbed sides extending well past the crank centerline and having close fitting 2-bolt bearing caps, only the rear cap was cross-bolted. Thin-wall centrifugally cast-iron wet liners held in place by a top flange between head and block were used. A copper ring provided the fire seal.
Fully machined titanium I-section 124mm long con-rods were used. Forged aluminum pistons with narrow slipper skirts and only 2-Dykes-type compression rings and an Apex oil ring were used. A Laystall manufactured steel crankshaft with its nitride bearing surface was used. It was counter-weighted but not excessively. The top end, apart from valve-gear details was pure BRM. The camshafts were driven by a train of gears from the nose of the crank. Gears below the crank drove the twin outlet water pump, next to the water pump was the oil pressure pump, the scavenge pump was of 3-gear design to double its capacity. All other accessories were driven from the timing gears.

Specifications:

Cylinders V12.
Bore 72.8mm.
Stroke 60mm.
Stroke/bore ratio 0.82:1.
Capacity 2997cc.
Compression ratio 12.0:1.
Con-rod length 124mm.
Rod/crank radius ratio 4.1:1.
Main bearing journal 60.3mm.
Con-rod journal 41.3mm.
Inlet valve 30.5mm.
Exhaust valve 25mm.
Inlet pressure 1.0Atm.
Engine weight 177kg.
Peak power 380bhp@10000rpm.
Piston speed corrected 21.7ms.
BHP per litre 126.8BHP/litre.
Engine weight per BHP 0.47kg/BHP
It is not white, it is not black, it is probably gray.

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Re: Specifications of 50 famous racing engines up to 1994

Post by hollus » Sun Apr 14, 2019 11:38 am

It is not white, it is not black, it is probably gray.

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Re: Specifications of 50 famous racing engines up to 1994

Post by hollus » Sun Apr 14, 2019 5:11 pm

1967 Ford DFV 3-litre V8

1967 Ford DFV 3-litre V8: Keith Duckworth’s DFV was a major contributor to the revival of the four-valve cylinder head as an optimum means of producing racing-engine power. The first Cosworth engine to have four valves was its formula 2 four based on the Ford Cortina block, which had a 40 degree included angle between the stems. For the GP engine this was reduced to 32 degrees with an 11:1 compression ratio, this narrow angle allowed the top of the piston to be flat except for four machined recesses to accommodate the valve heads near top-dead-centre, a configuration that produced an advantageously compact combustion chamber with at its centre, a single 10mm spark-plug.
Valve diameters were 34.5mm for the inlets and 29mm for the exhausts, both were closed by paired coil springs, lift was 10.4mm and timing was initially: Inlet opens 58 degrees BTDC, inlet closes 82 degrees ABDC, exhaust opens 98 degrees BBDC, exhaust closes 58 degrees ATDC.
The aluminum-alloy cylinder head was so designed that one casting served for both cylinder banks. It was held down by 10-main studs and additionally by 4-short studs along both sides of the head at its periphery extending downwards from the head. The seal with each cylinder was effected by a copper ring, set in a groove machined at the join between the flange at the top of the cylinder liner and the surface of the block.
The cylinder centre distance was 104.8mm and the offset between cylinder banks was 20.3mm. atop the head was a one-piece aluminum-alloy casting which served as a carrier for both cams and tappets. This was held down by long studs from the tops of the heads which also served to retain the cam bearing caps and, down the 2-centre rows, the shallow magnesium cam covers.
The steel cams were carried in 5-plain bearings, the wider centre bearing having a groove to supply oil to a hole through which it entered the hollow camshaft to distribute oil to the other bearings. Inverted-cup tappets were made of steel and contained shims for clearance adjustment. An inlet port that was as straight as possible to the valve was created. The inlet ports were oval at the head face and bifurcated internally to the 2-valves.
Above the ports were slide throttles, whose slides were supported on balls and rollers for free movement. Between the throttles and the ports were short stub ‘manifolds’ that contained passages through which the excess fuel returned by the injection pump could flow, and be cooled, on its way back to the fuel tank. They were refrigerated to around 30 degrees centigrade by the internal vaporization of the fuel. Fuel was injected just above the slides by a Lucas system. Operating at 110psi, its distributor delivered the fuel starting at 30 degrees after TDC.
This system was suspect when in their first 4 or 5 races, the V8 in the Lotuses were beset by erratic misfiring. Suspecting the fuel filters in the metering units for the Canadian GP in August 1967 Chapman added some large filters which bypassed the smaller built-in ones. This stopped the misfiring.
Lucas electronic ignition and electronic rev-limiting were used. With peak power being reached at 9000rpm Cosworth started out in 1967 with the limiter at 9500rpm, then moved it up to 9800rpm before the end of the season. Before the end of the season the fuel-injection metering unit, the ignition distributor and a small alternator were combined in a single unit mounted in the vee of the engine, and driven by a small –diameter shaft from a gearbox driven by the timing gear train at the front of the engine. 2-compouded (back-to-back) gears were included in the train at the front that drove the camshafts.
In the DFV early years this experienced various failures that led to intensive development of every aspect of the cams and gears, including making the later of vacuum-remelted steel. The final solution, introduced in 1971, was to introduce into the hub of the second compound gear 12 miniature torsion bars which were able to absorb the energy spikes that were troubling the gears. A shaft through the engine’s magnesium front cover turned a sprocket which powered a cogged rubber belt to drive the engine’s remaining accessories. This solution was adopted because Chapman and Duckworth had agreed that the engine would serve as the rear chassis element of the new Lotus 49 and that should not be encumbered with pumps on its front face. So side mounted pumps were introduced.
Sprockets drove a row of pumps along each side of the crankcase, first on each side was a coolant pump both being interconnected, on the right side also included an oil scavenge pump and a rotary oil/air separator. On the left side a mechanical fuel pump and an oil pressure pump as well as an oil filter were carried.
The aluminum-alloy cylinder block was cut off at crankshaft centerline, wet cast-iron cylinder liners clamped in the block at their top flange and grooved at the bottom to take 2-orings were used. Only 2 of the 5 main bearings, the second and fourth, had conventional caps (from 1971 the other three caps were integral with the aluminum casting of the engine’s bottom cover) in the original engine all 5 caps were carried by the cover. Carried in Vandervell thin-wall bearings was the crankshaft, forged from EN40 steel. This was of flat design counterbalanced accordingly.
Originally an oil pressure of more then 85psi was needed to ensure that oil reached the main and rod bearings, but in 1997 a breakthrough was made to a different network and angling of the internal drillings that performed better than the previous system at only 60psi.
Forged con-rods, 132.8mm long with fully skirted pistons with gudgeon pins retained by circlips with a triple ring pack including a Dykes-type ring at the top and a conventional compression ring and oil ring were used. The rods were polished and then shot-peened. From its first runs the 162kg Cosworth DFV had power, 408bhp@9000rpm to begin with, plus or minus 3 percent depending on the individual engine.

Specifications:

Cylinders V8.
Bore 85.7mm.
Stroke 64.8mm.
Stroke/bore ratio 0.76:1.
Capacity 2993cc.
Compression ratio 11.0:1.
Con-rod length 123.8mm.
Rod/crank radius ratio 4.1:1.
Main bearing journal 60.3mm.
Rod journal 49.2mm.
Inlet valve 34.5mm.
Exhaust valve 29mm.
Inlet pressure 1.0Atm.
Engine weight 162kg.
Peak power 408bhp@9000rpm.
Piston speed corrected 22m/s.
Engine bhp/litre 136.3bhp/litre.
Engine weight/bhp 0.40kg/bhp.
It is not white, it is not black, it is probably gray.

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Re: Specifications of 50 famous racing engines up to 1994

Post by hollus » Sun Apr 14, 2019 6:39 pm

A bit more stuff on the 1967 Ford DFV 3-litre V8:

http://www.formula1-dictionary.net/engi ... story.html

Image

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https://primotipo.com/2016/05/12/me-an-my-dfv/

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Probably not the 1967 specification:
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http://www.snaplap.net/lotus-49-a-miles ... a-one-car/

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Lots of cool images and videos of internals here:
http://tech-racingcars.wikidot.com/cosworth-dfv
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Re: Specifications of 50 famous racing engines up to 1994

Post by saviour stivala » Tue Apr 16, 2019 7:28 am

1967 Ford DFV 3-litre V8. A text misprint needs be corrected as follows. valve diameters, “and 39mm for the exhaust” should read “and 29mm for the exhaust”.

Fixed.

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Re: Specifications of 50 famous racing engines up to 1994

Post by saviour stivala » Tue Apr 16, 2019 10:33 am

hollus. excellent pictures/photos and links.

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Re: Specifications of 50 famous racing engines up to 1994

Post by hollus » Tue Apr 16, 2019 5:12 pm

1969 Porsche 912 4.5-litre Flat-12

1969 Porsche 912 4.5-litre Flat-12: The car was the 917 and its engine designation was type 912. Several aspects of the engine were ‘givens’ from the start. One was that it would be air-cooled as “we have never lost the air”. With air cooling went the opposed horizontal layout, which deployed the cylinders receptively to the air stream. Equally straightforward was the decision to make the engine a 12, composed of the same cylinder units used in the successful 908 flat-8, keeping the same bore and stroke of 85*65mm giving the 912 4494cc.
Its crank was like that of an in-line 6, with each throw rotated at 120 degree to its neighbor and each rod-journal carrying 2-con-rod big ends. The center distance between cylinders was 118mm except for the centre pair of cylinders on each bank, the same spacing that had been used for both the 901 and 911- 6 and the 908-8.
Steel backed multi-layer bearing shells were used for both the mains and the rod bearings. The 912’s forged titanium con-rods were similar to those used successfully in other Porsche racing engines and were the same length, 130mm, as those of the 901 and 911 and 908. Rod-bearing journals were52mm. This was the longest crank Porsche had made for a car, in its final form measuring 31.3 inches end to end. Analytical studies forecast large amplitudes of vibration at both ends of the shaft, but at its centre vibration was a node, a point that remained at rest.
Porsche decided to power not only the camshafts but also all the drives, from the engine’s output as well as for its accessories, from the centre of the crank, a straight-cut drive take-of gear with 32 teeth was formed at the centre of the crank. It was flanked by 2-larger 66mm main bearings, the remaining main bearings, 3-on each end, were 57mm diameter, bringing the total main bearing count to 8.
So that its central gear could be hardened to the degree necessary, the crank was forged of a chrome-nickel-molybdenum alloy steel. It was carried at the centre of a box-shaped cast magnesium crankcase that was split vertically from front to back. Studs and bolts around its periphery were chiefly of titanium. The halves were principally bound together by 16-bolts that went all the way through from one side to the other, one above and one below each main bearing. these bolts were made of a steel alloy called Dilavar, which had a coefficient of expansion only slightly lower than that of magnesium.
Set in a ball and needle bearings adjoining the centre split of the crankcase were shafts above and below the crank, both driven by its central gear. The lower shaft took drive to the clutch at the rear of the engine. Its driven gear had only 31 teeth, one less than the gear on the crank. A small step-down gear set at the front face of the output-shaft gear powered a pack of oil pumps at 0.54 times crankshaft speed. One was a pressure pump, with gears 64mm wide, and the other were separate 42mm scavenge pumps, one drew oil from the front of the crankcase while the other had a pickup about two-thirds of the way to the rear, at the front and rear ends of each exhaust camshaft more pumps were provided to scavenge spent oil from the cam-boxes.
Like the 912 engine’s other subassemblies, the oil pumps were mounted on the right-hand half of the crankcase, while the oil galleries were in the left-hand half. The pressure pump output was fed to a filter at the front of the engine that also contained a relief valve set for 71psi for the oil to the main and rod bearings. Because the crank had no power take-off at either end, it was easy matter to arrange a direct delivery of oil to the rod bearings through drillings in each end of the shaft.
Each drilling supplied oil to the 6-rods on each side of the central drive gear. Each of the 4-hardened-steel camshafts was carried in 8-plain bearings 30mm diameter. These were directly oiled as were the cup-type tappets that slid in aluminum inserts in the magnesium cam carrier housing running the full length of each cylinder bank. The fact that the delivery port did not open until the tappet had been depressed 2mm reduced the volume of flow by 60 percent from what it would otherwise have been.
The 912 was the first Porsche overhead-cam engine to drive its camshafts by trains of gears. four shafts carried steel gears on needle bearing between the crank and each pair of cams. All 4-shafts were supported by a magnesium housing that contained the gears and was principally bolted to the crankcase and also attached to the camshaft housing.
The 912’s valve timing pattern was the same as the 90’s as follows: Inlet opens 104 degrees BTDC. Inlet closes 104 degrees ABDC. Exhaust opens 105 degrees BBDC. Exhaust closes 75 degrees ATDC. Lift was 12.1mm for the inlet valve and 10.5mm for the exhausts. Both valves were hollow, with sodium-filled stems. 2-coil valve springs per valve were made from vacuum-melted alloy steel wire. Valve head diameters were the same as those of the 908, 47.5mm for the inlets and 40.5mm for the exhaust valve.
Cast of aluminum in a permanent mould, the individual head for each cylinder also resembled that of the 908, in fact it bore a 908 part number. Its valve angles were 30 degrees for the inlets and 35 degrees for the exhausts. Individual cylinders were forged of Mahle’s high-silicon aluminum alloy number 124, deeply finned by individual machining of each cylinder head, and given chrome-plated walls.
They bore forged fully skirted aluminum pistons of the same alloy with 2-compression rings above the gudgeon pin and a single oil ring bellow it. Cooling-oil jets 1-mm in diameter were fitted to the main bearing webs and aimed at the underside of the piston crowns.
Each head and cylinder was attached to the crankcase by 4-long cap screws. To minimize stress changes with heat, these were made of the Dilavar steel alloy that was also used for the crankcase bolts. Because these head screws were cooled by the fan, each was given an insulating jacket so it would be warm enough to maintain the proper expansion rate. Between the cylinder and the head. Porsche used a flat face-type joint that was sealed by a ring inserted in a groove machined in the top of the cylinder.
Like the 752-8, the 912’s cooling fan was placed flat and was mechanically driven by a bevel gear from the engine-speed shaft above the crank. From the front and back ends of the shaft 2-ignition distributors were turned by skew-gears. Each served 1-bank of 6-cylinders in the 912’s dual ignition system. The Bosch system used transistorized magnetic triggering and 4-ignition coils. From a pulley at the front end of the accessory drive shaft a v-belt drove an 860-watt alternator.
A double row Bosch fuel injection pump was mounted atop the front of the left inlet cam housing and driven by a short cogged belt from the end of the camshaft. Space-cam metering was used. Set for delivery pressure around 250psi, the injection nozzles were at the top of the plastic inlet ram pipes and were fed by nylon tubes. Slide throttles in 4-separate groups of 3 were joint by adjustable linkages.
Straight from the drawing board the engine delivered 542bhp. When it was ready to race it was producing 580bhp@8400rpmwith a compression ratio of 10.5:1. The flat-12 was enlarged in 1970 to 5.0-litres (86*70.4mm with a shortened 127.8mm con-rod.

Specifications:

Cylinders F12.
Bore 85mm.
Stroke 66mm.
Stroke/bore ratio 0.78:1.
Capacity 4494cc.
Compression ratio 10.5:1.
Con-rod length 130mm.
Rod/crank radius ratio 3.9:1.
Main bearing journal 57mm.
Rod journal 52mm.
Inlet valve 47.5mm.
Exhaust valve 40.5mm.
Inlet pressure 1.0 Atm.
Engine weight 241kg.
Peak power 580bhp@8400rpm.
Piston speed corrected 20.6m/s.
Peak torque 510Nm@6800rpm.
Peak bmep = 207psi.
Engine bhp/litre 129.1bhp/litre.
Engine weight per bhp 0.41kg/bhp.
It is not white, it is not black, it is probably gray.

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Re: Specifications of 50 famous racing engines up to 1994

Post by hollus » Tue Apr 16, 2019 5:31 pm

It is not white, it is not black, it is probably gray.

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Re: Specifications of 50 famous racing engines up to 1994

Post by gruntguru » Tue Apr 16, 2019 11:13 pm

hollus wrote:
Tue Apr 16, 2019 5:12 pm
1969 Porsche 912 4.5-litre Flat-12
The 912’s valve timing pattern was the same as the 90’s as follows: Inlet opens 104 degrees BTDC. Inlet closes 104 degrees ABDC. Exhaust opens 105 degrees BBDC. Exhaust closes 75 degrees ATDC.
Could you check the specification shown in red? Looks way too high - should be more like 76 degrees.

Great video!!!!
je suis charlie

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Re: Specifications of 50 famous racing engines up to 1994

Post by saviour stivala » Wed Apr 17, 2019 7:01 am

1969 Porsche 912 4.5-litre flat-12. Text print of inlet valve opens 104 degrees BTDC checked against my notes and it is correct as per said notes. And yes the 912 valve timing pattern was the same as the 1968 Porsche 908. But (just for information) The 1962 Porsche 753 1.5-litre flat-8 valve timing was as follows:- inlet opens 81 degrees BTDC. inlet closes 71 degrees ABDC. exhaust opens 81 degrees BBDC. exhaust closes 51 degrees ATDC.