F1 Hydraulic Pump, a closer look

All that has to do with the power train, gearbox, clutch, fuels and lubricants, etc. Generally the mechanical side of Formula One.
Brian.G
261
Joined: Fri Dec 10, 2010 10:52 pm
Location: Ireland

F1 Hydraulic Pump, a closer look

Post by Brian.G » Thu Aug 22, 2019 9:13 pm

Another part under the spot light, this time the F1 Hydraulic Pump.

In this thread I will be unlocking a few secrets hidden within this part - The F1 Hydraulic Pump, mainly its construction, operation, and some other features.

The part below is from a Honda F1 Engine but this particular pump was used on many engines and across many Manufacturers - it was used on the Cosworth V10 and V8 for example. It is also worth noting that this model of pump is also used on many aircraft - the A320, 747, 777 and the F-16 Fighter to name just a few.

The F1 Hydraulic Pump is normally driven off the rear of the alternator via a splined input shaft. It supplies pressurized oil around the car to many parts that require motion assist - power steering, throttle control, gearbox control, and so on. Hydraulic actuation has many benefits over cable or electronic control in F1 environments for many reasons - lightness, response time, and durability being a few.

The pump below is a variable displacement axial piston design. It is capable of varying the volume of fluid delivered to maintain system pressure. The major benefit of this pump is that is extremely compact and self contained in terms of varying the pumped volume of oil. An oil feed is simply taken from the outlet pressure port and this oil feed is then used to displace a small piston inside the pump which in turn alters the angle of the swash plate carrier which the piston plungers ride in. These pumps are considered the best in terms of hydraulic pump design for such applications however they are hugely expensive even refurbished due to the extremely high manufacturing tolerances within.

Before we move onto the actual pump, here are some figures relating to the pump in question.

Operating Pressure - 207bar (3000psi)
Maximum RPM - 11,000
Displacement - 0 - 2.46cubic centimeters per Rev (0.15inch)
Max Flow Per Minute - 25.7L (6.8USG)
Dry Weight without customer specific mount flange - 1.18KG (2.6lbs)
Length without customer specific mount flange - 90mm - 57mmW - 80mmH

Materials - Customer specific mount flange - Titanium.
Main gold body - 7 Series Aluminium.
Swash plate piston control housing - Cast Aluminum.
Rear Outlet cap - Cast Stainless.
Internals - Steel/Forged steel.

The pump,

Image

Image

Image

Drive shaft details and mount flange,

Image

Drive shaft features end buffers to prevent axial fretting on braking and acceleration,

Image

Swash plate pivot pin covers,

Image

Titanium mounting flange,

Image

Lock wire detail - pressure adjustment screw on right, swash plate spring return cap nut on left,

Image

Opposite side,

Image

Fluid entry,

Image

Fluid exit,

Image

Lock wire removed,

Image

Image

Mount flange removal, the mount flange clamps on two O-rings to provide dampening,

Image

Image

Image

Image

Removal of tail section which contains the pressure relief valve assembly - held on with titanium cap screws,

Image

Image

Seal details - O-ring with backup ring,

Image

Image

Removal of pressure bypass assembly from tail section - note spool type pressure control valve on left in 2nd picture and also the exit drilling from tail section pressure path which feeds into swash plate control piston,

Image

Image

The concave button which sits on end of spool valve,

Image

Image

The pressure release spool valve up close - note the sliding pin in this valve is just 2mm in diameter,

Image

Image

The face of the tail housing showing fluid entry and exit ports,

Image

The face of the spinning axial piston chamber assembly - entry drilling for swash plate piston control top right,

Image

Cast aluminium swash plate piston control body removed,

Image

Image

Swash plate control piston on left - sprung return plunger on right,

Image

Image

Control piston removed - oil enters into the side of the retaining banjo style bolt and exits the end - forcing the piston across to move forged swash plate carrier,

Image

The tab on the swash plate carrier which the pistons above press on,

Image

Axial piston chamber assembly removed,

Image

Image

Spline detail as well as bearing detail - most of this assembly is bearing - only the gold part is piston chamber assembly. Worth noting - it is the piston chamber that is driven - this in turn then causes the pistons to rotate on the swash plate carrier,

Image

Image

Swash plate carrier pivot,

Image

Swash plate carrier movement,

Image

Image

Removal of swash plate assembly, pivot plates hold carrier captive,

Image

Image

Image

Pivot plate refitted for clarity,

Image

These locate onto needle bearings in the swash plate carrier,

Image

The outer race refitting into housing as it was difficult to see with the assembly installed,

Image

The swash plate and carrier fork refitted to pump piston body - the carrier fork is forged steel and incorporates an integral swash plate bearing thrust face,

Image

Image

Interior - notice the notches internally to fit a tool to support when assembling the bearing parts,

Image

On the opposite side, notches are also present for assembly as seen below,

Image

Once seated, the nut plate is staked in 3 places,

Image

A diagram below shows the fluid path in order to create the hydrodynamic oil film within the assembly,

Image

A shot of the main body and bearing,

Image

Drive shaft removed,

Image

The seal arrangement - the metal part is spring loaded with a wave washer against the inside of main case,

Image

Image

Image

The assembled pump and parts,

Image

Exploded shows how end float and drive is arranged - the spring at the end of the splined drive socket keeps the piston chamber assembly forced against the intake/Output port tail section.

Image

A simplified diagram of how the pump works for those not familiar,

Image
(Image Courtesy of Michael Frey)

A 3d model of the pump above,

Image
(Image Courtesy of Parker Aero Division)

So thats pretty much it in terms of what the F1 Hydraulic Pump looks like externally and internally - neat piece of kit and pretty important given the fact that it supplies fluid to pretty much everything critical on an F1 Car.

Until next time,

Brian,
Last edited by Brian.G on Fri Aug 23, 2019 1:43 am, edited 1 time in total.
If you think you cant, you wont, If you think you can, you will

Big Tea
60
User avatar
Joined: Sun Dec 24, 2017 7:57 pm

Re: F1 Hydraulic Pump, a closer look

Post by Big Tea » Thu Aug 22, 2019 9:52 pm

Superb, thank you
One test is worth a thousand expert opinions

gruntguru
431
Joined: Sat Feb 21, 2009 6:43 am

Re: F1 Hydraulic Pump, a closer look

Post by gruntguru » Thu Aug 22, 2019 11:19 pm

Great stuff Brian - thanks again for sharing your passion.

Wonderful photos and the scale is breathtaking. This device is about the size of a teacup yet generates up to 12hp of hydraulic power.
je suis charlie

Brian.G
261
Joined: Fri Dec 10, 2010 10:52 pm
Location: Ireland

Re: F1 Hydraulic Pump, a closer look

Post by Brian.G » Fri Aug 23, 2019 1:02 am

Thanks folks - Indeed....lot of punch for tiny footprint.

Will give it a second read over in the morn - think its pretty ok though.

Brian,
If you think you cant, you wont, If you think you can, you will

riff_raff
132
Joined: Fri Dec 24, 2004 9:18 am

Re: F1 Hydraulic Pump, a closer look

Post by riff_raff » Sat Aug 24, 2019 6:14 am

Great example of mechanical control system design. Here's a link to the Parker data sheet for these pumps.

http://www.parker.com/Literature/Hydrau ... nPumps.pdf

However, the current trend in aircraft is away from engine driven pumps and distributed hydraulic circuits. So we won't likely see this particular type of hydraulic pump used much on new aircraft models.
"Q: How do you make a small fortune in racing?
A: Start with a large one!"

saviour stivala
-13
Joined: Wed Apr 25, 2018 11:54 am

Re: F1 Hydraulic Pump, a closer look

Post by saviour stivala » Sat Aug 24, 2019 7:19 am

Thanks for sharing such incredible detail.

hardingfv32
30
Joined: Sun Apr 03, 2011 6:42 pm

Re: F1 Hydraulic Pump, a closer look

Post by hardingfv32 » Sat Aug 24, 2019 7:35 pm

riff_raff wrote:
Sat Aug 24, 2019 6:14 am
However, the current trend in aircraft is away from engine driven pumps and distributed hydraulic circuits.
And what is the new option in aircraft?

Brian

Dr. Acula
38
Joined: Sat Jul 28, 2018 12:23 pm

Re: F1 Hydraulic Pump, a closer look

Post by Dr. Acula » Sun Aug 25, 2019 2:09 pm

hardingfv32 wrote:
Sat Aug 24, 2019 7:35 pm
And what is the new option in aircraft?

Brian
So called electro hydraulic actuators or short EHA's. It's basically a small self contained hydraulic system powered by an electric pump. It has the advantage that the control system is still partially functional even if you have an electric fault or a loss of hydraulic fluid in one of the EHA's. You only lose the part the faulty EHA is controlling and not the complete system. For instance if you power the Ailerons with EHA's and the system gets damaged by shrapnel or something because of a catastrophic engine failure on the on the left side, you only lose the left aileron, the right one is still fully functional.

Smokes
3
Joined: Tue Mar 30, 2010 4:47 pm

Re: F1 Hydraulic Pump, a closer look

Post by Smokes » Tue Aug 27, 2019 12:40 pm

Brian is the Hydraulic pressure from the pump fed into an accumulator?

https://www.parker.com/literature/Accum ... alogue.pdf

These tend to stabilize the pulsation effect of the pump.

Brian.G
261
Joined: Fri Dec 10, 2010 10:52 pm
Location: Ireland

Re: F1 Hydraulic Pump, a closer look

Post by Brian.G » Tue Aug 27, 2019 2:43 pm

Smokes wrote:
Tue Aug 27, 2019 12:40 pm
Brian is the Hydraulic pressure from the pump fed into an accumulator?

https://www.parker.com/literature/Accum ... alogue.pdf

These tend to stabilize the pulsation effect of the pump.
From memory yes - its a closed system - the accumulator contains a diaphragm charged with nitrogen the far side.

Brian,
If you think you cant, you wont, If you think you can, you will

markc
5
User avatar
Joined: Thu Dec 08, 2011 12:30 am

Re: F1 Hydraulic Pump, a closer look

Post by markc » Tue Aug 27, 2019 3:05 pm

Dr. Acula wrote:
Sun Aug 25, 2019 2:09 pm
hardingfv32 wrote:
Sat Aug 24, 2019 7:35 pm
And what is the new option in aircraft?

Brian
So called electro hydraulic actuators or short EHA's. It's basically a small self contained hydraulic system powered by an electric pump. It has the advantage that the control system is still partially functional even if you have an electric fault or a loss of hydraulic fluid in one of the EHA's. You only lose the part the faulty EHA is controlling and not the complete system. For instance if you power the Ailerons with EHA's and the system gets damaged by shrapnel or something because of a catastrophic engine failure on the on the left side, you only lose the left aileron, the right one is still fully functional.
For those interested in more detail: https://www.moog.com/news/blog-new/elec ... ators.html

Brian.G
261
Joined: Fri Dec 10, 2010 10:52 pm
Location: Ireland

Re: F1 Hydraulic Pump, a closer look

Post by Brian.G » Tue Aug 27, 2019 3:43 pm

markc wrote:
Tue Aug 27, 2019 3:05 pm
Dr. Acula wrote:
Sun Aug 25, 2019 2:09 pm
hardingfv32 wrote:
Sat Aug 24, 2019 7:35 pm
And what is the new option in aircraft?

Brian
So called electro hydraulic actuators or short EHA's. It's basically a small self contained hydraulic system powered by an electric pump. It has the advantage that the control system is still partially functional even if you have an electric fault or a loss of hydraulic fluid in one of the EHA's. You only lose the part the faulty EHA is controlling and not the complete system. For instance if you power the Ailerons with EHA's and the system gets damaged by shrapnel or something because of a catastrophic engine failure on the on the left side, you only lose the left aileron, the right one is still fully functional.
For those interested in more detail: https://www.moog.com/news/blog-new/elec ... ators.html
One would make a very fancy log splitter!

Brian,
If you think you cant, you wont, If you think you can, you will

saviour stivala
-13
Joined: Wed Apr 25, 2018 11:54 am

Re: F1 Hydraulic Pump, a closer look

Post by saviour stivala » Tue Aug 27, 2019 5:26 pm

If the engine which rotates the hydraulic pump stops, hydraulic pressure by pump stops, a hydraulic accumulator in the system is enforced by the rules even if not specifically mentioned.

saviour stivala
-13
Joined: Wed Apr 25, 2018 11:54 am

Re: F1 Hydraulic Pump, a closer look

Post by saviour stivala » Wed Aug 28, 2019 6:21 pm

One team I know off (at the time of the TJ) used hydraulic pump, as used on a their car draws oil from pressurized reservoir maintained at 3.0-3.5 bar. This pressurized intake system to the pump prevents cavitation occurring at maximum flow rate by a large –diameter piston connected to a small diameter piston that is pressurized by the 200 bar system pressure. Using a sealed reservoir system minimizes the volume and weight.

Brian.G
261
Joined: Fri Dec 10, 2010 10:52 pm
Location: Ireland

Re: F1 Hydraulic Pump, a closer look

Post by Brian.G » Mon Sep 02, 2019 11:53 pm

saviour stivala wrote:
Wed Aug 28, 2019 6:21 pm
One team I know off (at the time of the TJ) used hydraulic pump, as used on a their car draws oil from pressurized reservoir maintained at 3.0-3.5 bar. This pressurized intake system to the pump prevents cavitation occurring at maximum flow rate by a large –diameter piston connected to a small diameter piston that is pressurized by the 200 bar system pressure. Using a sealed reservoir system minimizes the volume and weight.
This is common with this type of pump and them needing pressure on the intake side - otherwise lack of pressure can cause the pistons to hammer on the swash plate as they try suck in the fluid.

Brian,
If you think you cant, you wont, If you think you can, you will